Style Sheet


Use a full stop only if the last letter is not the last letter of the word: thus cols, Dr, St, nos, vols etc., but col., no., p., pp., vol. etc.
— Please note: USA, UK etc., and (in footnotes) MS, plural MSS.
— See also below, Dates, and Repeated references.

Books and periodicals

See the examples below, under References to …

Captions for illustrations

Captions should be numbered and should be kept as brief as possible to allow maximum space for the illustrations.


— 27 September; 7 March 1555 (Venetian style); 13 June 1766
— 430 BC; 305 AD
— 1376-79; 1477-93; 1718/19 (old/new style)
— c. 1611; fl. 1311-35; d. 1902
— in the text: Seventeenth century; eighteenth century
— but in footnotes: 17th century; 18th century
— Quattrocento, Cinquecento (not italicised).


Footnotes should be numbered consecutively and their reference numbers in the text should be placed after any punctuation. They should be short and confined mainly to bibliographical references. Long footnotes should be avoided if possible.


Please do use italics for titles of works of art, books and periodicals; and for very short phrases in languages other than English (one or two words only; example under Quotations). Do not italicise citations in foreign languages (which are normally used only in footnotes: see Quotations).

Manuscript and archive references

See the examples below, under References to …


Personal names should be given as well as surnames at first mention (with a few obvious exceptions, e.g., Dante, Einstein, Freud, Luther, Newton, Petrarch, Shakespeare).
— Use a single space between initials in names, thus e.g., A. J. Ayer, not A.J. Ayer.
— Proper names ending in ‘s’, ‘x’ or ‘z’ take an extra possessive, e.g., Rubens’s works.
— Place names should be given in English forms if they exist, e.g., Basle, Cologne, Rome.


In the text, numbers between one and one hundred (inclusive) should normally be written out in full, with arabic numerals used for higher denominations; thus ‘between ninety and 120 men’ etc. In articles containing statistical information, however, this rule is relaxed. In footnotes, arabic numerals should be used.
— Inclusive numerals repeat the final two digits or more as required, thus 18-19, 123-24, 399-406.
— The Journal does not use the suffixes ‘f’ or ‘ff’. Exact page numbers should be given.
— All volume numbers should be given in roman numerals (either upper- or lower-case, consistently).
— Numerals in dates: see above, Dates.

Page numbers

See above, Numerals, and the examples given below under References to …


Short quotations
Quotations within sentences should be given single quotation marks and any quotations within them should be given double quotation marks. Examples:
——— … For a gem in Istanbul, inscribed ‘Solomon said, “Protect!”’, see…
——— … the reason why Petrarch loved bay (lauro) so much was…
——— … Nineteen manuscripts are listed, including a copy of Cicero’s De oratore ‘in carta bona’ and…

Long quotations

These should be given without quotation marks, as separate paragraphs distinguished by indenting or a smaller type-size. Quotations within them should be given single quotation marks.

Quotations in languages other than English should normally be given in translation in the text, with a footnote giving the original in full. Occasionally (e.g., in the case of poetry) it may be preferable to reverse this procedure.

Please note that direct quotations from modern critical literature are discouraged, in line with this Journal’s general emphasis on primary sources.

References to articles in periodicals

— M. J. Kitchel, ‘The De potentiis animae of Walter Burley’, Mediaeval Studies, XXXIII, 1971, pp. 85-113.
— D. S. Chambers, ‘The Housing Problems of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga’, this Journal,* XXXIX, 1976, pp. 21-58 (26-32).
* Note that the Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes should be referred to as ‘this Journal’.

References to books

From about 1800 onwards, initials rather than full forenames should be used for authors and editors. In all references, the place of publication should be cited using its customary English spelling and followed, without a comma, by the date of publication. Page numbers should be cited in accordance with the rules for numerals. TheJournal does not use the abbreviations f. or ff. Book and chapter numbers, where relevant, should follow the conventions for classical works and be placed after page numbers, in round brackets.

— A. C. de la Mare, ‘The Florentine Scribes of Cardinal Giovanni of Aragon’, in Il libro e il testo (Atti del convegno internazionale, Urbino 1982), ed. C. Questa and R. Raffaelli, Urbino 1984, pp. 245-46.
— G. A. Galante, Guida sacra della città di Napoli (Naples 1873), ed. N. Spinosa, Naples 1985, p. 140.
— Leon Battista Alberti, De re aedificatoria, ed. and tr. (Italian) G. Orlandi and P. Portoghesi, 2 vols, Milan 1966, repr. 1988, I, pp. 62-63, 74-75 (I.8, I.10), and II, pp. 998-99 (X.17).
— Andrea Alciati, Emblematum liber, Augsburg 1531, sig. C6r.

References to books of the Bible

Books of the Bible are not italicised: e.g., II Chronicles 9.2; Matthew 26.8.

References to classical works

— Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, III.10 (1118a17-25)
— Vergil, Aeneid, VI.249.
Use roman numerals for the book number (if any) and arabic numerals for partitions, separated by full stops. Commonly accepted English forms are normally used for authors and titles, which should always be given in full.

References to illustrations

References to authors’ own illustrations should be indicated as Fig. [1, 2, 3, … etc.]; references to illustrations published elsewhere should be pl. [number] or fig. [number] as appropriate, using lower-case letters.

For information on supplying illustrations for publication, see the Illustrations section in our Notes for Contributors (click here).

References to internet resources

Wherever possible, references to material consulted through internet resources should be accompanied by standard references; e.g., where a manuscript or early printed book has been quoted, the appropriate full archive reference and folio number, or publication reference and page number, must be given in addition to the online reference. References to the resources themselves should be kept as brief as possible, and URLs* should be avoided, as they are subject to change.

— Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Bodley 264, fol. 74v. Enlarged colour reproductions of the entire MS are available for consultation through the Early Manuscripts Imaging Project on the Bodleian Library website.

Since texts and images which are published on the internet are liable to be edited or replaced over time, authors are asked to ensure that references to them are correct at the time the Journal goes to press. A note may be added to indicate this.

In certain cases it may be necessary for authors to obtain copyright permission for texts available through internet resources; such citations should acknowledge this permission accordingly, although the Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes reserves the right to edit these citations to conform to its style.

* URL (or URI): the address of a resource on the internet; world wide web URLs normally begin with "http://".

References to manuscripts and documents

— London, British Library MS Harley 4431, fols 8r, 14v–16r. 
— Florence, Archivio di Stato, Notarile Antecosimiano, 1748 (Ser Antonio Bartolomei, 1474–76), fols 84r–87r.

Authors are asked to ensure that archive names and locations are given in full and that citations of press-mark or finding numbers follow the exact form used by the library or repository of archives concerned.

For recto and verso, superscript r and v are helpful but not essential. Please note that the recto should always be indicated.

See also below, Transcriptions.

References to theses

— J. Hankins, ‘Latin Translations of Plato in the Renaissance’, Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University 1984, p. 21.

Repeated references

Although bibliographical data must be spelt out in full in initial references, shortened forms of frequently-used names and titles may be used in subsequent footnotes, so long as the abbreviation to be adopted is previously indicated, e.g., ‘Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, Rome 1960– [here­after DBI]’; ‘British Library (hereafter BL)’. If preferred, a list of such references may be provided in a first or asterisk footnote.

Ibid. (not italicised) may be used for a repeated reference immediately following the first one, but subsequent references should include the footnote number, e.g., ‘Saxl (as in n. 28), p. 36’. Where there might be confusion between two works by the same author, a key word or short title should be added.


Please use British, not American spellings except in direct quotations.
— Medieval, encyclopedia etc. should be spelt thus (not mediaeval, encyclopaedia etc.).
— Christianised, allegorised, emphasising etc. should be spelt thus (-is- not -iz-).
— English forms are used for place names (see above, Names).


Where unpublished material is cited verbatim from transcriptions, authors are asked to retain photocopies of the original documents so that any queries may be handled swiftly. Where documents are to be published in an Appendix, please indicate the transcription conventions which have been followed. Examples are available on request.


Quotations in languages other than English should normally be translated or summarised in the text, with a footnote giving the original in full.

Volume numbers

See above, Numerals.